Musical Instrument Terms

“by …

“A work catalogued as “by” a maker is, in our opinion, a work by that maker.  A work catalogued as “by” a dealer, is in our opinion, a work made specifically for the dealer and originally sold by them, the identity of the actual maker being unknown or unidentifiable.

“Attributed to …”

The instrument is believed to be by the named maker in the opinion of the author(s) or the authority(ies) whose literature or certificates are referred to in the footnote to the lot.  In our opinion the instrument is not necessarily the work of this maker.

“Ascribed to …”

A traditional attribution with which we do not necessarily agree.

“Workshop of …”

In our opinion the instrument was probably executed by an unknown hand on the premises of and possibly under the direct supervision of the named maker.